distribution occur when different organisms able to withstand different
degrees of stress are found living in areas along the shore that
suit their particular needs.
The upper limit
of an organism's distribution on the shore depends largely on its
degree of tolerance of the physical environment. However, the lower
limits of distributions are usually affected by interactions with
other animals and plants such as competition and predation.
two extremes, many habitat features are important determinants of
the distribution patterns of intertidal plants and animals.